Sunday, December 29, 2019

Violence, Terrorism, and the Interactions between...

Violence, Terrorism, and the Interactions between Cultures When humans from different cultures interact, the result is often bloodshed, domination and disease. Also, without exception, the exchange of ideas gradually occurs. All of these factors have shaped the course of history. While much of the spread of disease has been reduced since the Black Death, much bloodshed still comes from the interaction of cultures, possibly from physical contact without intellectual or rational interaction and understanding. Interaction itself is necessary and does result in good as well, especially in terms of technological advancements. The spread of disease is possibly one of the most dramatic results of interactions between cultures. The†¦show more content†¦(Diamond) Millions of Romans died during the fifteen-year epidemic. In the fourteenth century, the Black Death (bubonic plague) traveled from Central Asia to Europe and killed a third of Europe’s population. It continued to reappear periodically for the next 300 years. The Great Plague hit London in 1665 and was killing about 6,000 people a week by September. (Ponting) Close quarters and a lack of good sanitation helped perpetuate the problem. While this logic seems sound, it is also true that we have limited knowledge of the history of meso-American peoples and the diseases they may have discovered. For example, the Mayans disappeared mysteriously, and disease has been suggested as the cause. What we do know is that when the Europeans interacted with the indigenous American peoples, the Americans had no immunity to the diseases the Europeans carried, while the Europeans’ health remained unaffected by the interaction. (Diamond) The result of the spread of European diseases was drastic. When Cortà ©s tried to conquer the Aztecs in 1519, he barely managed to make his way back to the coast with the remaining third of his men. The second time he tried, smallpox had preceded him, resulting in the deaths of half of the Aztecs and some depressingly better luck for Cortà ©s. The disease killed over 18 million of Mexico’s initial 20 million people by 1618. (Diamond)Show MoreRelatedUnderstanding of Identity in Samuel P. Huntingtons Clash of Civilization1148 Words   |  5 Pagestheir ideas and state their suggestions in a way to find a precise definition for such a word, especially where the globalization has become a fact which produces with it many effectual consequences. Some writers had linked Identity with the original culture to which a person may belong, others dealt with it as a changing factor transformed according to every ones status,however a third category characterized the Identity from another angel in view of religious or ideological background. HuntingtonRead MoreGreetings from Grozny1006 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction. The film introduced the conflict escalation between Russia and Chechnya during the Second Chechen war in May 2002. The conflict between the two nations centered on independence and conquest. Culture marks the different perspectives of each nation about the war. The Chechens viewed the war as a political game, where they act as puns (Greetings from Grozny, 2002). Russians, on the other hand, viewed the war as a security operation, because they want to justify their occupations of ChechnyaRead MoreUnited States Department Of State1748 Words   |  7 Pagesnone are located in Mexico. Despite the lack of official FTOs in Mexico, non-state violence is at an all-time high and the country is more dangerous than ever. This is because of the presence and prevalence of drug cartels throughout the country. These drug cartels employ violent tactics as part of their drug trafficking network. But these cartels are more than just criminal organizations. The scope of the violence, the fear they instill in the population, and the influence they have on policy showsRead MoreEssay on The Enviromental Affects on Terrorism1121 Words   |  5 PagesThe Enviromental Affects on Terrorism The FBI defines three types of terrorists: (1) a leader with a strong commitment to their groups belief system; (2) an activist operator who often has a criminal background and implements their groups agenda; and (3) an idealist who finds a sense of purpose in his commitment to their group. (Kressel, 82) In the field of psychology, it is the psychologists duty to try to come up with theories or correlations, which help people group and identify terroristRead MoreThe Is Terrorism, And What Makes It Offensive?1492 Words   |  6 Pagesfactors. Perspectives are a major factor with terrorism. Terrorism can be traced back nearly 50,000 years, to the onset of human existence. It has affected every culture, and every gender. Ranging from the Egyptians and the pharos, to the Greek kings. It has marched across all of the Middle East, through the once pure skies, right into our home land- the United States of America. But what is terrorism, and what makes it offensive? To understand terrorism, we must delve into its roots. In the documentaryRead MoreNative American Children And The Educational Assault On Indian Children1571 Words   |  7 Pages common across many forms of protest, but indigenous populations have sui generis interactions with governments, ones that are often more complicated by differences of culture. Many threats that indigenous people in particular encounter fall under the header of ethnocidal interactions with foreign parties in which missionaries, governments, and corporations come into indigenous-held areas and destroy their cultures, often deliberately. These outsiders will often believe that they are helping savageRead MoreThe Differences Between Cultures And Culture Essay1579 Words   |  7 Pagesconflicts between cultures Culture is a specific set of attitudes and perception that direct the way a community lives. There are very many cultural groups and orientations in the world today. These groups are based on specific homogenous attitudes or values shared by a community. From the definition, the factors may emanate from religion, ethnicity, education, gender or sexual orientation. For example, as a function of religion, culture has the potential to cause huge divides between people. TheRead MoreIslamophobia On The Rise Of Islamophobia Essay1470 Words   |  6 PagesIslamophobia on the Rise Islamophobia is a growing social problem that promotes an atmosphere of fear, hatred or violence toward Muslim people and currently affects eight million Muslim Americans in the United States. As ideological hatred and irrational fears grow so does the danger to Muslim citizens here in the States and abroad. Europe is also experiencing Islamophobia as well and events like the Syria Migration Crisis and attacks from Islamic radicals are putting a lot of strain on Muslim relationsRead MoreViolence And Hate Crime And Violence Through Intercultural Praxis, Education, And Socially Responsible Actions1431 Words   |  6 PagesViolence and hate crimes are frequent in the United States and have become a major issue for many people. Violence comes in many different forms such as domestic, societal, and individual. Violence is the main cause of distress and has the power to tear families apart. As a result, the newer generation of kids are left to deal with insecurity, inequality, and injust ice. In order to ensure that people carry out the proper approach to violence, professionals and even every day individuals must be trainedRead MoreCharacteristics of the Modern Nation-State Essay1600 Words   |  7 Pagesthe criteria of and functions as a modern nation-state, discuss the European Union as a transnational entity, analyze how nation-states and transnational entities engage on foreign policy to achieve their interests, and the consequences of this interaction for international politics. Some of the characteristics that make up a modern nation-state are; the population of the territory is united in the national identity and traditions, has an official language or languages and common descent, has an

Friday, December 20, 2019

Hiv, Aids, And Autoimmune Diseases - 2108 Words

HIV, AIDS Autoimmune Diseases: What Anesthesia Providers Need to Know. History of HIV In 1981 clinicians in New York, San Francisco and Los Angeles recognized an immunodeficiency syndrome in homosexual men. By the end of that year, there had been several hundred cases reported and the disease was also occurring in intravenous drug users, blood transfusion recipients at the time, babies born to infected mothers and high risk heterosexuals, and so the name was changed to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Within 3 years the causative virus was identified. It was initially known by various names such as Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV –III), Lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV), Aids associated retro virus (ARV). In 1986 the name Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) became internationally accepted. There are two kinds of HIV viruses: HIV-1 (US, Europe and Central Africa) and HIV-2 (West Africa). Both types have same mode of transmission and are diagnosed using same tests. The main difference is that HIV-2 has a slower disease course. Incidence Demographics of HIV The CDC estimates 1,218,400 people aged 13 and over are living with HIV in the United States. Of this population, 156,300 (12.8%) are not aware of their infection. Over the past decade, the number of people living with HIV has increased, meanwhile the annual number of new HIV infections has remained relatively stable. The pace of new infections continues to be far too high —particularlyShow MoreRelatedThe Lymphatic And Immune System859 Words   |  4 Pagesthymus gland, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels. White blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), plasma, and platelets (thrombocytes) make up the blood. Lymphocytes are leukocytes (white blood cells) that help the body fight off diseases. Two types of lymphocytes are B cells and T cells. Lymphocytes recognize antigens, or foreign substances/matter, in the body. Lymphocytes are a classification of agranulocytes, or cells (-cytes) without (a-) granules (granul/o) in the cytoplasm.Read MoreOutline Of The Worku p Of Cervical Lymphadenopathy1258 Words   |  6 Pagesis essential to formulate a differential diagnosis. Cervical lymphadenopathy is not uncommon, especially in children and therefore differential diagnoses are broad (Lang, Kansy, 2014). The causes of cervical lymphadenopathy can be infections, autoimmune disorders, or malignancy. What test would you do first and why? First and foremost, thing to do when a patient comes with cervical lymphadenopathy is to get a detailed history. The history should include questions such as the onset of lump; painRead MoreAcquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ( Aids )1289 Words   |  6 PagesOther times the immune system fights against itself causing autoimmune diseases that may or may not do irreparable harm. And sometimes, immune deficiency can be acquired. This is the case of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a disease where the immune system depreciates its capability over the course of the illness due to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the causative agent. Historically, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is thought to have mutated from the Simian ImmunodeficiencyRead MoreThe History of AIDS and HIV690 Words   |  3 Pageswhich 1 and 5 people are infected with the a virus that causes aids. She discuses the microscopic realm of the virus and virus infected cells to AIDS therapies. Dr. Ojiktu treats people with HIV and other infectious diseases. She enjoys linking what is happening here and overseas. She also works on a team to develop programs and do research concerning aids. In 1980 a strange new disease was growing, starting in Los Angeles. This disease presented vague symptoms such as weight loss, lack of energyRead MoreUsing CRISPR / Cas9 Technology To CISRNA Plasmid?992 Words   |  4 Pagesagainst HIV. CRISPR/Cas9 can also target HIV’s latent form. Many times, individuals don’t realize that they have the disease because the virus remains dormant in their cells. CD4+ T cells are infected by HIV and thus CRISPR/Cas9 can be used to edit the genome in the cells. Ebina et al. (2013) utilized CRISPR/Cas9 to target mutated long tandem repeats (LTRs) that HIV utilizes to integrate its DNA into the host’s genome. To do so, the experimenters used human cells infected with artificial HIV usingRead MoreHiv And The Human Immunodeficiency Virus3032 Words   |  13 PagesThe Human Immunodeficiency Virus, also known as HIV, was discovered by Dr. Robert Gallo and Dr. Luc Montagnier. HIV had its first known case in a human in the year 1959. Though, its first known case in the United States was in 1981 when the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, known as the CDC, reported five homosexual men in Los Angeles, California with Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia, a rare form of p neumonia. These findings were published in CDC S Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, orRead MoreQuiz for Chapter 291832 Words   |  8 Pagespermeability and dilation of blood vessels | | | the anti-inflammatory response | | | antibody production | Question 4 | AIDS has become a more manageable illness in developed countries in recent years due to: | | general resistance in the human population. | | | declining disease rates in most areas of the world. | | | vaccines. | | | medications that keep HIV from copying itself. | | | changes in the viral genome. | Question 5 | Why does producing a large clone of activatedRead MoreMovie Reflection On Stigma, Society, And Public Health1764 Words   |  8 PagesOn The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Film: Movie Reflection on Stigma, Society, and Public Health And the Band Played On is a film about the first few years of the AIDS epidemic in the United States. The film focuses on epidemiologist Dr. Don Francis’ journey, with the Center for Disease Control, to research and explain a disease that was never seen before. After a sudden outbreak of cases, all with the same symptoms, is seen in the gay communities along western California, the Center for Disease ControlRead MoreThe Pharmaceutical And Medicine Manufacturing Industry1791 Words   |  8 PagesWhat would you do if you had to suffer every day from a life threatening illness that was debilitating and incurable? Over nine hundred million people throughout the world die each year because of incurable diseases such as cancer, HIV, and AIDS (What par 1). The number of people that suffer from these varying illnesses is slowly increasing, but the use of pharmaceutical drugs is helping to solve this problem. â€Å"The pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing industry has produced a variety of medicinalRead MoreRacism And Heterosexism Within African American Churches1349 Words   |  6 Pagesmembers became sick from an unknown illness which later became recognized as the autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has a superfluous effect on the black community. African-Americans accumulate nearly half of most HIV and AIDS diagnoses. The delayed response of black leaders to the epidemic was another factor that incited the highly prevalent rates of HIV and AIDS cases within the African-American community. Along with affected gay men, prostitutes

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Strategic Business Management Structuring and Implementing

Question: Describe about the Strategic Business Management for Structuring and Implementing. Answer: Introduction: The report is based on the strategic management and the strategic planning for an organization. The strategic management deals with the structuring and implementing of the objectives of the companies. It also deals with the planning of the efforts to be taken by the management to achieve the objectives taking into account the resources available in the competitive environment of the company. Brief description of the organization and its industry: The chosen company is Qantas Airline. This organization is one of the leading airline companies in the country and the second oldest airline company that has been chosen for the report. It is an Australian airline company that has been founded in the year 1920. It is the largest airline in Australia with its huge range of services for the domestic and international flights. There are almost 33000 employees and operates a fleet over of over 250 aircraft (Qantas, 2016). Fleets of this airline company include Boeing, Bombardier aircraft and Airbus Since a long time this airline company is performing its services successfully. It has been able to cover huge network that covers almost 182 destinations in 44 countries. International Air Transport Association IATA has declared this airline company to be 11st largest in terms of the revenues earned per kilometres (qantas, 2016). The company formulates those strategies that have been able to bring in enhanced revenues to the company. The comp any had experienced some of the setbacks in the past in the international market and with the help of its effective marketing audit and planning along with the effective strategies this company has been able to restore the lost position and the loses. In the current scenario The Company now enjoys lucrative earnings and competitive returns on the investments. Jet Star and Qantas Link are the brands of the company (qantas, 2016). The industry in which it operates is highly competitive and there are many rivals that also provide quality services. The company has to be highly competitive so that it could enjoy the competitive advantages and could perform better than the rivals. The industry is served by many of the airline companies that provide standard services and it has been seen that Qantas tries to charge very reasonably from the customers and provide value added services to enhance their loyalty(Tadros, 2008). The domestic market of this company is favourable and the international market is also good for the company. Qantas has been able to bring in changes in the industrial development of the country and through its quality wise best services and reasonable prices has been able to rule the industry (qantas, 2016). Identification of the vision statement, mission statement and statement of values: Visions: The vision of the company is to become the leading airline enterprise in the industry. Within a very short tenure the company has been able to reform itself to be one of the largest companies. The vision has influenced the company to provide the best services in the market (Qantas, 2016). Mission: The company aims to provide best quality services to the customers and to be one of the innovative companies in the industry. This has been motivating the company in performing well and competitively in the market. Values: The company aims at providing value added services to the customers. The employees of the company are taken into serious consideration and there have many provisions that could enhance the satisfaction of the employees. The company tries to retain the value of the corporate and social responsibilities. Description: Identification of the objectives: Qantas has been one of the oldest airlines in the world and it is the leading airline company in Australia. The organization has been successfully conducting the domestic and the international flight operations. It is one of the few airline companies in the world that has declared to be a profitable organization. The organization has been running on certain aims and objectives those are enumerated as follows: To become the most successful airline company in Australia. To become one of the leading international airlines in the world. Improving the international market share. Developing the decent domestic market share further. Implementing more facilities and amenities for the customers by bringing overall development of on and off-flight services. Offering value-added services to the customers to earn their loyalty. To offer budget air travel to those passengers who cannot afford business class travel. To make the flight travel popular by bringing it to those people who were not able to afford flight travels previously(GRIN, 2014). Analysis of their appropriateness for the organisation: The aforementioned objectives are the fundamental aims of the company as of the present situation. The management of the organization have implemented some of the strategies for the purpose making the company grow more and attain increased popularity. The company has been providing the services to the people those can afford flight travel. But, the company has now planned to offer budget flight travel for those people who did not have the good fortune to experience flight travel so far. So this strategy is very much relevant for the company as it would surely increase the interest of the customers to travel by Qantas. The domestic market is already very favourable and now Qantas wants to improve the international market share substantially and this objective is certainly one of the most important and relevant one for the company. The offering of more facilities, amenities and value added services to the customers at the domestic and international levels is a prudent strategy that wil l ensure growth and sustainability in the long run and improve the decreasing international market share of Qantas(Qantas, 2016). Suggested potential improvements: Qantas has potential areas where it has significant scope of improvement. The company needs to take care of the occasional delays in the arrivals and departures of the domestic flights in particular those are more susceptible to delays. This has caused passenger agitation in the past. The management needs to ensure that these lags are minimized in order to prevent the company from losing its reputation and goodwill. The company can also undertake research and developmental endeavours in the department of adopting much advanced technological innovations in the department of aviation. It can purchase some more advanced fleets of the long-haul aircrafts those will offer much safety, security and comfort of travel. The services of the staffs and employees can be made more professional by conducting even better training and development programs to handle emergency situations. The company will have to try to increase its international flight services and match up to the global leaders like Emirates, Etihad, Lufthansa, etc. Therefore, more research and development is required in this domain along with more investments from the management(Preez, 2015). Internal analysis of the organisation: The internal analysis of the organization could be done with the help of the SWOT analysis. Following is the SWOT analysis of the company: Strengths: It is leading in the industry in Australia. Both the national and global market of this company is good. In terms of revenue passenger kilometres it is 11st airline company. The fares of the tickets are affordable and also the value added services provided. Weaknesses: Market share seemed to have declined few years earlier. The ineffectiveness in the strategies had led the company to that situation(ABC Net, 1999). Opportunities: The future of the company is good. The company now implements effective strategies. The marketing audit and planning of the company are formulated in successful manner. The company could bring innovative strategies to replace the conventional ones. Threats: The industry is highly competitive. There are threats from the new entrants. The services of the rival companies are also of similar types. The market share of the rivals could get enhanced if lower rates are offered by them (Dyson, 2004). Analysis of its external environment using appropriate strategic management tools: The external environment could be analyzed with the help of the PESTEL analysis and with the help of the Porter five forces analysis (pestleanalysis, 2015). PESTEL analysis: Political factors: The Commonwealth Level and the political environment of the country regulate the airline industry of Australia. The political factors exert influence on the industry and its participants. The airline industry of Australia is deregulated and that is why the competition is steep. Economic factors: The increased prices of the fuel and the unfortunate incident of 11th September along with the issues in the SARS have impacted the volume of sales of this company. The inflationary situation in the economy has catapulted the prices of the flights and that impacts the global market of the company. Social factors: The training and development of the workers of the country has been the demand in the social environment. The awareness for the need of the technological improvement has put a pressure on the company to enhance the quality of the technical know-how. The lifestyle of the people of the country and changing pattern of the tastes and preferences has also impacted the business of the company. Technological factors: The technology is one of the prime factors of the airline industry. The company has to ensure regular improvement of the technological know-how and to the need of the innovation is felt. The company implements best in class techniques and tools of the Information technology and this has impacted the growth of the economies of scale for the company. Environmental factors: The Company is one of the most environmental friendly companies. The company implements the environmental friendly procedures and policies to avoid the harmful impacts on the environment. Legal factors: The Company complies with the legal regulations and the norms of the governing bodies (Abdullah, 2011 ). Porters Five Forces: The factors in the macro environment could also be analyzed with the help of Porters five forces. Rivalry- It is one of the most important factors in the external environment. The company faces steep competition not only from the existing companies but also from the new entrant(Boundless, 2015). Threats of new entrants- As per the regulations of the Australian governing bodies the new entrants are entering in the market and this is one of the reasons behind the steepness in the competition in the domestic and internal market Bargaining power of the consumers- The customers could exert moderate power because of the prices of the flights provided by the company are reasonable and there is huge cost of switching to the services of the rivals. Bargaining power of the suppliers- The suppliers could exert lower bargaining power because of the instability of the economic factors in the country. The use of the high end technology by the company has also reduced the bargaining power of the suppliers. Threats of substitutes- The services provided by the rivals are substitutes of the services of the company. But it is found that in the airline industry of the country the rate of substitution is low as the company provides unique services than its rivals and that also at affordable prices. Developing an appropriate strategy for the organisation: The organization has plans to improve the overall quality of the services. The main focus is to improve the international market share. For this aim in mind, the focus of the company is to invest in technology to match up to the likes of the global giants like Emirates. The company has plans to purchase much advanced fleets of aeroplanes both in the long-haul and the short-haul category. However, the prime focus is on the long-haul category now that implies the international flights where the company has not been able to put up the desired level of performance, being the leading airline of Australia. Therefore, the company should invest in buying new fleets, providing state-of-the-art services both on and off the flights, offer much professional and dedicated services to the customers by remaining more accountable and responsible. The management should also invent some new value-added services like special discounts and gifts to loyal customers on some special days like their birthda ys or marriage anniversaries. The customer services should also be improved by making it more prompt such that queries are resolved within a period of 24 hours. For that, there should be 24x7 online assistance also on the website of Qantas where many customers those are not able to call the customer care at that point of time can chat with the customer care executives and discuss their problems(Flynn, 2016). Relevance of strategy: The proposed strategies by Qantas management to improve the quality of the services is in line with its objective of extending budget air travel to the people of Australia those were so long not able to enjoy the experience of flight travel. The air fares will be lower than the competitors for the executive class travel. This will at first be implemented in the domestic circuit. The company will observe how this reduced cost is affecting the profitability of the organization. Depending on the success or failure, the management will then decide to reduce the executive class travel fares for the common people of Australia those cannot afford the business class travels. This strategy is very significant for the company if it has to improve its dwindling international market share. Along with these objectives there are other strategies also those are discussed earlier and are needed to be implemented for improving the international market growth and sustainability aspects of Qantas(Milan pintar, 2015). How the strategy is related to vision/mission/objectives: The international and the domestic strategies those are proposed by the Qantas management are aligned with the vision, mission and objectives of the company. This is ensured from the fact that Qantas was losing its international market share despite being the leading airline company of Australia. It was doing a satisfactory business in the domestic circuit though. But, there was need for improving the overall quality of services in terms of technology and commitment to professionalism. These strategies are to be followed by the company in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives, the primary of which is to become one of the global aces in aviation sector. Thus, the proposed strategies are very significant and pertinent to the growth and developmental agenda of Qantas(Smith, 2015). The critical importance of implementation, execution, and evaluation of the strategies: The strategies those are designed for the domestic and the international circuits need to be implemented by Qantas in reality. But, the implementation if not backed by proper execution plans and evaluation measures like key performance indicators, and then it has no value. The organization will not attain success if the implemented strategies are not monitored at every stage. Thus evaluation becomes a very important measure to ensure success. Conclusion: On a concluding note to the essay one can observe the several strategies those are proposed to be undertaken by Qantas in order to gain much popularity as a global brand in the international arena. The company was facing the issue of decreased international market share and thereby it needed to devise strategies for improving the international market share. The company also needed to improve on some other areas those were highlighted in the said essay. In the end, it can be said that the implementation and evaluation success of the strategies will ensure the future growth and profitability prospects for Qantas. References: ABC Net (1999) Qantas faces tarnished record after Bankok crash report, 26 November, [Online], Available: Abdullah, M.N. (2011 ) 'A Study on the Impact of PEST Analysis on the Pharmaceutical Sector: The Bangladesh Context ', Journal of Modern Accounting and Auditing, ISSN 1548-6583 Vol. 7, No. 12, 1446-1456 , pp. 1-11. Boundless (2015) Competitive Dynamics, [Online], Available: Dyson, R.G. (2004) 'Strategic development and SWOT analysis at the University of Warwick', European Journal of Operational Research 152 (2004) 631640, pp. 3-10. Flynn, D. (2016) Flying Qantas from San Francisco? Here's your airport lounge strategy., [Online], Available: GRIN (2014) The corporate strategy of Qantas Airways. A case study, [Online], Available: Milanpintar (2015) Strategic Management Group report: Qantas case study analysis, [Online], Available: pestleanalysis (2015) Porters Five Forces Analysis, [Online], Available: Preez, D.d. (2015) Qantas puts technology at the centre of its 2016 growth plans, [Online], Available: qantas (2016) Latest flight offers from Sydney , [Online], Available: qantas (2016) Our Network, [Online], Available: Qantas (2016) qantas, [Online], Available: Qantas (2016) Service Culture, [Online], Available: Smith, P. (2015) Qantas invests in new technology to maximise its ticket prices, [Online], Available: Tadros, E. (2008) Tag Archives: Qantas, 9 January, [Online], Available:

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Socrates Defines Justice free essay sample

This Is because self-made men love their wealth as a creation of oneself much eke a craftsman loves their art or a father loves his son. Cephalic then explains that the greatest function of wealth, for those of good character, is to be able to repay debts and to avoid defrauding people and lying to them. Thus his definition of justice is derived from the importance of money. The problem with this definition that Socrates points out immediately is that simply repaying debts as they are due does not always constitute Just action. Socrates gives the example of borrowing weapons from a man who was once sane but It Is now Insane.It would not be Just to return weapons to a man who is insane. It would merely be an act of honesty and returning borrowed items. As Cephalic is a wealthy man content in his place in old age, his self-interest of being able to repay debts and pass down a sizable fortune to his offspring drives his definition. He sees Justice as a means of maintaining his privileged status, since being honest and paying his debts on time has benefited him in the past. Cephalic concedes his argument quickly but then It Is Inherited by Polymerases. Cephalic heir.Polymerases alms to redirect the definition by stating that justice is to pay everyone what is owed to them. More specifically he explains that Justice is to do good for friends and do harm to enemies. This definition immediately is put to the test by Socrates who points out the flaw in defining friends and enemies. Socrates convinces Cephalic that human beings can misinterpret friends as foes and vice versa. In doing so, one would inadvertently treat the good person badly and the bad person well. And since the good person Is Just and does no wrong It Is then unjust to do harm to the good person.Polymerases sees the flaw in this philosophy and aims to redefine friends and enemies. He then claims that if omen appears good and is so then he is considered a friend but if he appears so and is not he would be considered an enemy. This leads to the revised definition of justice that entails, it is Just to help a friend if he Is Indeed good, and to harm an enemy If he Is Indeed bad. Totals Socrates asks If It Is truly In the nature of the Just man to treat someone poorly. Polymerases asserts that It Is, as long as that person Is bad.Then Socrates explains what happens to horses, dogs, and humans respectively when they are treated badly. When people and animals are treated badly they come worse not better. This leads to the deduction that ill treatment off human makes them worse by the standard of human excellence. And since both men agree that Justice Is a human excellence in it of itself, then poor treatment of people makes them more unjust which Is not the goal of the Just man. This explanation Is sledded injustice. Much like it is not a property of heat to cool things, but rather a property of its opposite.Thus it is not the property of the Just man to treat friend or foe badly; it is the property of the opposite, the unjust man. Socrates then explains that the rigging of the philosophy of treating friends well and enemies poorly came from a rich king in the past that had great power. It is here where the advent of self-interest is evident in this definition. A powerful king would likely benefit from aiding his allies and destroying his enemies. He would then promote a theory of Justice congruent with the nature of how he came into power in order to legitimate his power in the eyes of his followers.As Socrates and Polymerases reach consensus, Trashcans interjects by challenging Socrates to give a definition of Justice on his own. After lever social maneuvering, Socrates convinces Trashcans to first give his definition of Justice. Trashcans defines Justice as simply what is good for the stronger. He explains that in all of the types of governments the ruling body enacts laws that are beneficial to themselves (the stronger). As these laws are created, they are followed by the subordinates and if they are broken, lawbreakers are punished for being unjust.To this Socrates challenges that the ruling body could on occasion make the mistake of creating a law that did not benefit the stronger. And in doing so, he subjects following the laws of Justice would not be benefiting the stronger. Trashcans accepts the assertion that the ruling body could in turn make mistakes but does not accept that Socrates has flipped his argument. Trashcans, sensing he is losing credibility, deviates from the original argument to point out the differences between the Just man and the unjust man.At this time Trashcans aims to demonstrate the advantages the unjust man has over the Just man. He points out several examples involving distribution of wealth where the Just man pays more in taxes and levies and the unjust man does not. The greatest example he ivies of true injustice prevailing is the advent of tyranny-?taking of others possessions. He explains that on the smallest scale people who are thieves, grave robbers, and temple raiders are condemned and punished for their acts by the state.But those who commit it on the largest scale (kings who enslave entire populations) are commended for their actions and haled by their citizens. The ultimate conclusion of Trashcans is that Justice is in fact what is good for the stronger, whereas injustice is what is profitable and good for oneself. Trashcans points out that a large scale is important for this statement to be true. So Trashcans has now hybridism his argument to show that Justice exists to maintain power for the ruling body while injustice is what benefits the most powerful individuals who utilize it.It is here the true flaws of the theory are revealed. He claims Justice is something that is simply established by the ruling power of a government and injustice is merely an act that a rational person should engage in for self-benefit. From here Socrates will show that both statements are false. Both Justice and injustice according to Socrates are innate properties of man, not mere acts or law dies. After much deliberation, Socrates convinces Trashcans that the Just man does not ever try and out do another Just man but only unjust men. On the other hand the unjust man not only tries to outdo the Just man but other unjust men as well. These are properties of the men that make them good and bad respectively. Unjust man is ignorant and bad. From here the entire argument falls apart. In the beginning Trashcans was antagonistic towards Socrates for dissecting other peoples definitions of Justice, claiming that all Socrates does is ask questions that Anton be answered without offering any answers of his own. This bitter exchange gives some insight as to why Trashcans would construct such a simple definition of Justice in order to invite tricks from Socrates.The self-interest of Trashcans to embarrass Socrates in front of fellow intellectuals drives the vague original definition of Justice and the revised version later. Trashcans claims Justice is invaluable simply for the fact that Socrates values Justice so much yet he fails to give the group a concise definition. Trashcans interest driven argument has nothing o do with his position in government or level of wealth, but rather a quarrel with the great Socrates who he aims to undermine.The closest that Socrates actually comes to giving a true definition of Justice is when he claims that Justice is a excellence of the soul and that injustice is a vice or defect of the soul. This definition sees Justice not as a tool of governments or individuals but as a property of the soul. To be Just is therefore to be good and wise and to be unjust is to possess a defective soul. The reason this definition is flawed is the subjective nature of defining goodness of the OLL.Such a definition could not be applied universally to ruling bodies of governments because measuring the value off mans soul is not feasible. Socrates later denotes that l dont know what Justice is, Im hardly going to know whether or not it is in fact some kind of excellence or virtue, or whether the person who possesses it is unhappy or happy. Here the self-interest of Socrates is reiterated as Socrates desires knowledge of the subject more than proving the other definitions incorrect. Since he does not know the true definition of Justice he has no other datives in proving one right or wrong.Socrates begins the discussion with the intention of finding the true nature of Justice. This turns out to be a daunting task as he finds flaws in every definition that is presented. Socrates sees Justice as an elusive concept that may or may not be beneficial to human beings. As Justice could not easily be defined by Socrates and his followers it remains difficult to agree upon a universal definition today. If we are all individuals, with individual motives, it will be next to impossible for our species to agree upon a Justice that applies to all.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Export of Marine Products from India Essay Example

Export of Marine Products from India Essay India’s marine product exports have for the first time crossed $2 billion, according to official figures for financial year 2009-10 released. Recession in the international market has not impacted the export of marine products from the country, the Marine Products Exports Development Authority said. In terms of volumes too, 2009-10 was exceptional, it added. Exports aggregated 663,603 tonnes valued at Rs. 9,921. 46 crore. In terms of US dollars, it was $2,105. 60 million. Compared to the previous year, there was 10. 8 percent growth in volume, 15. 26 percent in rupee earning and 10. 32 percent growth in US dollar earnings. Frozen shrimp continued to be the major export item accounting for 41. 74 percent of the total dollar earnings. Fish, the principal export item in terms of volume and the second largest in value terms, accounted for 38. 37 percent in quantity and 20. 09 percent in dollar earnings. Export of live lobster, live crab and Baigai (little water snail) showed an in crease in exports. However, the export of ornamental fish showed a declining trend, mainly because of a ban on export of Denisonii by the Kerala government. The European Union remained the largest market with a share of 30. 07 percent in dollar realization, followed by China with a share of 17. 73 percent and Japan 12. 96 p The fishery production is around 125 million tons. China, Japan, India, U. S. A. , Russian federation, Indonesia and Chile are the major fish producing countries. Out of this India holds a third position in the world production. Currently, Indias total annual fish production is 5. 65 million tons (Inland-2. 8 million tons and Marine-2. 83 million tons). But India has an estimated potential of about 8. 4 million tons (Inland 4. 50 and marine3. 0 million tons). This vast untapped potential can be utilized successfully to uplift Indias fish trade in the international market and secure a position for India fish in the world. EXPORT OF MARINE PRODUCTS FROM INDIA 2009-10 Export trend Since the fall in the export earnings during 2003-04, the dollar earnings have increased steadily till 2009-10 EXPORT TREND OF MARINE PRODUCTS Q: Quantity in MT, V: Value Rs. Crore, $: US Dollar in Million    Year |    | Export | Variation |   Ã‚   (%) | U. V. | 2002-03 | Q | 467297 | +42827 | +10. 09 |   | | V | 6881. 31 | +924. 26 | +15. 52 | 147. 26 | | $ | 1424. 90 | +171. 5 | +13. 69 | 3. 05 | 2003-04 | Q | 412017 | -55280 | -11. 83 | | | V | 6091. 95 | -789. 36 | -11. 47 | 147. 86 | | $ | 1330. 76 | -94. 14 | -6. 61 | 3. 23 | 2004-05 | Q | 461329 | 49312 | 11. 97 | | | V | 6646. 69 | 554. 74 | 9. 11 | 144. 08 | | $ | 1478. 48 | 147. 71 | 11. 10 | 3. 20 | 2005-06 | Q | 512164 | 50835 | 11. 02 | | | V | 7245. 30 | 598. 61 | 9. 05 | 141. 46 | | $ | 1644. 21 | 165. 74 | 11. 21 | 3. 21 | 2006-07| Q | 612641| 100478| 19. 62|   | | V | 8363. 53| 1118. 23| 15. 43| 136. 52| | $ | 1852. 93| 208. 72| 12. 69| 3. 02| 2007-08| Q | 541701| -70941| -11. 58|   | | V | 7620. 92| -742. 61| -8. 88| 140. 8| | $ | 1899. 09| 46. 16| 2. 49| 3. 51| 2008-09| Q | 602835| 61135| 11. 29|   | | V | 8607. 94| 987. 02| 12. 95| 142. 7 9| | $ | 1908. 63| 9. 53| 0. 50| 3. 17| 2009-10| Q | 678436| 75601| 12. 54|   | | V | 10048. 53| 1440. 59| 16. 74| 148. 11| | $ | 2132. 84| 224. 21| 11. 75| 3. 14| During 2009-10 for the first time in the history of Marine product exports, the export earnings have crossed 2 billion US dollars and Rs. 10,000 crore mark. Export has crossed all previous records in quantity , rupee value and US $ terms. Exports aggregated to 678436 tonnes valued at Rs. 10048. 53 crore and US Dollar 2132. 84 million. We will write a custom essay sample on Export of Marine Products from India specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Export of Marine Products from India specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Export of Marine Products from India specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Compared to the previous year, this recorded. a growth of 12. 54% in quantity, 16. 74% in rupee earning and 11. 75% growth in US $ earnings. Major items of export Frozen shrimp continued to be the major export item accounting for 41. 40% of   the total US$   earnings. Shrimp exports during the period increased by 3. 58%, 10. 65% and 5. 21% in quantity, rupee value and US $ value respectively. There is a slight increase in unit value realization of 1. 57%. Fish, the principal export item in quantity   terms and the second largest export item in value terms, accounted for a share of about 38. 47% in quantity and 20. 1% in US $ earnings. There is an increase of value realization of Ribbon fish inspite of the short fall in quantity by 12. 45%. There was also good landing of Leather Jacket. Frozen mackerel, Anchovy, Kati fish etc. also showed a positive growth where as Tuna export has considerably decreased, Fr. Cuttlefish recorded a growth of 25. 13%, 21. 39% and 16. 30% in quantit y, rupee value and dollar terms respectively. However, there is a decline in the unit value realization (7. 06%). Items like dried items, live items and chilled items also showed a substantial growth compared to previous year. Export of Fr. Squid showed an increase in quantity but there is a fall ;in rupee amp; US dollar realization. Unit value realization also declined by 13. 95%. Export of Live Lobster, Live crab and Baigai showed an increase in exports where as the export of Ornamental fish showed a decline in US $ terms. FO A Delicious Variety of Freshwater Fishes Two very important facets of the Indian economy is fishery and aquaculture. Out of this, Andhra Pradesh accounts for about 25-30% of Indias total seafood exports. India is a land of exotic fishes. A huge variety of India fish are available in the coastal waters of India, harvested by local fishermen. These fish can be put under the heading of India fish. There is a great demand for India fish in the world market. An exotic variety of India fish are exported to countries all over the world. India fish is very delectable and greatly in demand in the western countries. Indian cooking is more inclined towards spicy food and the west is showing a definite but gradual inclination towards this kind of food. The Western world has now acquired a taste for spicy food, as compared to the bland food which was their normal intake before. In order to make eating a rich experience, the demand for Indian fish is now on the rise. Indian fishes can be flavoured and cooked in very many ways. The use of special Indian spices and herbs make them even tastier. Fish from India now definitely forms a part of their lunches and dinners. A lot of restaurants in the West now cater to variety of imported India fish which are imported from India. Siam Canadian exports an immense variety of high quality fishes from India and keeps up a steady supply of these fishes to the world market. The various types of fishes are: Tilapia, which is imported Whole Round, Whole Gutted, or even fillets. Hilsa, one of the tastiest of Indian fishes sold Whole Round. Another variety of white fish is Rohu, which is sold as Whole Gutted or Steaks Block Frozen. Mrigal is sold Whole Gutted. Ayer, another flaky white fish is sold Whole Gutted or Steaks Block Frozen. Boal is sold Whole Gutted, Catla as Whole Gutted or Block Frozen Steaks. Another very delicious variety of fish is Chital, which is sold Whole Gutted. Some other varieties of India fish which we sell are Reef Cod, Spanish, Mackerel, Indian Mackerel, Pomfret, Ribbon fish, Black Sea Bream and Sardines. Siam Canadian works with local factory in India Vishakapatnam, although it is a Thailand based company. These locally interlinked offices provide the expertise and knowledge of the local people. Fishes which fall under the category of India fish is harvested mainly in the coastal waters of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. Soon after this, it is taken to the local Siam Canadian factory, where a very dedicated team checks the fish meat for quality. Only the top quality fishes are taken. It is then checked for germs for germs or micro bacterial organisms. Following this, the fish is frozen and packed into clean containers and shipped. At Siam Canadian, we also provide India fish at very competitive prices. We cater to all your needs in the best possible manner. If you come to us, you will have no cause for complaint. Our procurement team procures India fish in bulk. Hence we can provide you with any amount that you need. Since 1987, we have been steadily growing and have now acquired a definite footing as a market leader. Our motto is to give maximum benefit to our customers. MAJOR ITEMWISE EXPORTS| Q: Quantity in Tons, | V: Value in Rs. Crores,| $: USD Million| ITEM| Share %|   | 2009-10| 2008-09| Variation| (%)| FROZEN SHRIMP| 19. 24| Q:| 130553| 126039| 4513. 66| 3. 58|   | 41. 62| V:| 4182. 35| 3779. 0| 402. 56| 10. 65| | 41. 40| $:| 883. 03| 839. 28| 43. 75| 5. 21| | UV$:|   | 6. 76| 6. 66| 0. 10| 1. 57| FROZEN FISH| 38. 47| Q:| 260979| 238544| 22435. 60| 9. 41|   | 20. 23| V:| 2032. 33| 1722. 34| 309. 99| 18. 00| | 20. 21| $:| 430. 94| 375. 24| 55. 70| 14. 84| | UV$:|   | 1. 65| 1. 57| 0. 08| 4. 97| FR CUTTLE FISH| 9. 36| Q:| 53504| 50750| 12754. 88| 25. 13|   | 9. 19 | V:| 923. 83| 761. 05| 162. 78| 21. 39| | 9. 18| $:| 195. 69| 168. 27| 27. 42| 16. 30| | UV$:|   | 3. 08| 3. 32| -0. 23| -7. 06| FR SQUID| 9. 06| Q:| 61445| 57125| 4319. 15| 7. 56| | 6. 20| V:| 622. 63| 632. 35| -9. 71| -1. 54| | 6. 0| $:| 132. 24| 142. 87| -10. 63| -7. 44| | UV$:|   | 2. 15| 2. 50| -0. 35| -13. 95| DRIED ITEM| 6. 94| Q:| 47053| 31688| 15364. 71| 48. 49|   | 9. 76| V:| 981. 11| 420. 75| 560. 36| 133. 18| | 9. 79| $:| 208. 72| 92. 51| 116. 20| 125. 61| | UV$:|   | 4. 44| 2. 92| 1. 52| 51. 94| LIVE ITEMS| 0. 81| Q:| 5492| 3434| 2058. 27| 59. 93| | 1. 39| V:| 139. 14| 99. 00| 40. 14| 40. 55| | 1. 38| $:| 29. 52| 21. 82| 7. 69| 35. 24| | UV$:|   | 5. 37| 6. 36| -0. 98| -15. 44| CHILLED ITEMS| 4. 25| Q:| 28817| 21453| 7363. 60| 34. 33|   | 2. 63| V:| 264. 49| 217. 34| 47. 15| 21. 69| | 2. 62| $:| 55. 87| 48. 39| 7. 48| 15. 6| | UV$:|   | 1. 94| 2. 26| -0. 32| -14. 04| OTHERS| 11. 88| Q:| 80592| 73801| 6790. 85| 9. 2| | 8. 98| V:| 902. 84| 975. 33| -72. 68| -7. 45| | 9. 23| $:| 196. 84| 220. 24| -23. 40| -10. 62| | UV$:|   | 2. 44| 2. 98| -0. 54| -18. 15| TOTAL| 100| Q:| 678436| 602835| 75600. 73| 12. 54| | 100| V:| 10048. 53| 8607. 94| 1440. 59| 16. 74| | 100| $:| 2132. 84| 1908. 63| 224. 21| 11. 75| | UV$:|   | 3. 14| 3. 17| -0. 02| -0. 71| Major export markets European Union (EU), continued to be   the largest market   with a   share of   29. 89% in US $   realization. China maintained the second place with a share of 17. 0%, followed by Japan 13. 06%, USA 10. 01%, South East Asia 14. 76%, Middle East 5. 49% and Other Countries 8. 99%. Exports to countries like Libya, Reunion islands, Australia, Puertorico,   Dominican Republic, Kenya, Tanzania, Ukraine, Brazil etc. registered a positive growth. MAJOR REGIONWISE EXPORTS| Q: Quantity in Tons,| V: Value in Rs. Crores,| $: USD million| Country| Share %|   | 2009-10| 2008-09| Variation| (%)| JAPAN| 9. 24| Q:| 62690| 57271| 5419| 9. 46| | 12. 83| V:| 1289. 58| 1234. 04 | 55. 56| 4. 50| | 13. 06| $:| 278. 58| 278. 62| -0. 05| -0. 02| USA| 4. 93| Q:| 33444| 36877| -3433| -9. 31| 10. 08| V:| 1012. 52| 1021. 55| -9. 03| -0. 88| | 10. 01| $:| 213. 52| 227. 29| -13. 76| -6. 06| EUROPEAN UNION| 24. 29| Q:| 164800| 155161| 9638| 6. 21|   | 29. 99| V:| 3013. 33| 2854. 07| 159. 27| 5. 58| | 29. 89| $:| 637. 40| 635. 34| 2. 06| 0. 32| CHINA| 21. 27| Q:| 144290| 147312| -3023| -2. 05| | 17. 82| V:| 1790. 89| 1296. 39| 494. 50| 38. 14| | 17. 80| $:| 379. 70| 281. 90| 97. 79| 34. 69| SOUTH EAST ASIA| 22. 01| Q:| 149353| 88953| 60400| 67. 90|   | 14. 72| V:| 1479. 55| 873. 09| 606. 46| 69. 46| | 14. 76| $:| 314. 85| 191. 08| 123. 77| 64. 78| MIDDLE EAST| 5. 15| Q:| 34907| 27177| 7730| 28. 4| | 5. 51| V:| 553. 55| 475. 72| 77. 83| 16. 36| | 5. 49| $:| 117. 05| 105. 20| 11. 85| 11. 26| OTHERS| 13. 11| Q:| 88953| 90083| -1130| -1. 25| | 9. 05| V:| 909. 11| 853. 11| 56. 00| 6. 56| | 8. 99| $:| 191. 77| 189. 22| 2. 55| 1. 35| Total| 100| Q:| 678436| 602835| 75601 | 12. 54| | 100| V:| 10048. 53| 8607. 94| 1440. 59| 16. 74| | 100| $:| 2132. 84| 1908. 63| 221. 21| 11. 75| Port wise exports. Exports were affected from 19 Sea/land/air ports. The major ports in the order of US $ earnings were Pipavav (16. 94%) Kochi (15. 61%), JNP (15. 54%). Chennai (13. 03%), Vizag (9. 34%), Calcutta (8. 2%), Tuticorin (6. 81%), Mumbai (4. 59%), Mangalore (. 4. 01%) etc. Ports like Pipavav, JNP, Chennai, Kolkatta, Mumbai, Mangalore, Goa, Ahemedabad, Trivandrum and Agarthala have shown an increase in the exports compared to the previous year while ports like Vizag, Tuticorin, Hill Land Customs, Karimganj etc showed a declining trend. Export from Kochi port showed an increase in quantity as well as in rupee realization where as there was a decline in US $ terms by 0. 69%. Export from Mundra port also showed an increase in terms of quantity and rupee value however there was a short fall in US $ realization. There was no export from ports like Kandla, NSICT and Port Blair. Details of port wise export are given in the table below. The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) Origin of MPEDA The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) was constituted in 1972 under the Marine Products Export Development Authority Act 1972 The role envisaged for the MPEDA under the statute is comprehensive covering fisheries of all kinds, increasing exports, specifying standards, processing, marketing, extension and training in various aspects of the industry. Structure, Activities amp; Network MPEDA functions under the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India and acts as a coordinating agency with different Central and State Government establishments engaged in fishery production and allied activities. Standing Committees of MPEDA * Executiv Committee * Technical Committee * Export Promotion Committee The plan schemes of the Authority are implemented under seven major heads: * Market Promotion * Capture Fisheris * Culture Fisheries * Processing infrastructure amp; value addition * Quality control * Research and development * Viability gap funding Work programme of MPEDA ) Registration of infrastructure facilities for seafood Export trade 2) Collection and dissemination of trade information 3) Projection of Indian marine products in overseas markets by participation in overseas fairs and organising international seafood fairs in India. 4) Implementation of development measures vital to the industry like distribution of insulated fish boxes, putting up fish landing platform s, improvement of peeling sheds, modernisation of industry such as upgrading of plate freezers, installation of IQF machinery, generator sets, ice making machineries, quality control laboratory etc. ) Promotion of   aquaculture for production of   shrimp and prawn for export. 6) Promotion of value added Seafoods. 7) Promotion of Tuna fishery. 8) Implementation of organic farming. 9) Conservation management. INDIAS SEAFOOD RESOURCE INDIAS SEAFOOD RESOURCEDI India’s seafood resources | India with a long coast line of 8129 Kms, two million sq. kms of Exclusive Economic Zone and 1. 2 million hectors of brackish water bodies, offers vast potential for development of fisheries. Against an estimated fishery potential of 3. 9 million tones from marine sector, only 2. million tones are tapped. Fishing efforts are largely confined to the inshore waters through artisanal, traditional, mechanised sectors. About 90% of the present production from the marine sector is from within a dep th range of up to 50 to 70 meters and remaining 10% from depths extending up to 200 meters. While 93% of the production is contributed by artisanal, mechanised and motorised sector, the remaining 7% is contributed by deep sea fishing fleets confining their operation mainly to the shrimp grounds in the upper East Coast. Built up Capacity of the Indian seafood Industry Name of the State| No. of Exporters| No. of Process Plants| Freezing Capacity (Ton. p/d)| No. of Cold Storages| Storage Capacity| No. of Fishing Vessels | Kerala| 287| 124| 1585. 77| 169| 23086. 50| 2963| Tamil Nadu| 286| 48| 524. 55| 67| 5900. 00| 1562| Karnataka| 43| 14| 186. 40| 26| 3540. 00| 3226| Andhra Pradesh| 95| 52| 779. 50| 53| 7200. 00| 717| Goa| 9| 7| 104. 00| 9| 1275. 00| 420| Gujarath| 64| 55| 2216. 03| 57| 22925. 00| 426| Orissa| 30| 21| 220. 00| 20| 2460. 00| 414| Maharastra| 268| 41| 1327. 11| 39| 19372. 0| 2932| West Bengal| 99| 37| 340. 00| 30| 3500. 00| 0| Delhi (UT)| 92| | 0. 00| 1| 15. 00| 0| OO I IAS S The marine products exports are benefited by Special Focus initiatives. SPECIAL FOCUS INITIATIVES Marine Sector * Imports for technological upgradation under EPCG in fisheries sector (except fishing trawlers, ships, boats and other similar items) exempted from maintaining average export obligation. * Duty free impo rt of specified specialized inputs / chemicals and flavouring oils is allowed to the extent of 1% of FOB value of preceding financial year’s export. To allow import of monofilament longline system for tuna fishing at a concessional rate of duty and Bait Fish for tuna fishing at Nil duty. * A self   removal procedure for clearance of seafood waste is applicable subject to prescribed wastage norms. * Marine products are considered for VKGUY scheme. http://www. siamcanadian. com/india-fish/potential. htm Credit facilities have helped the India Fish Industry immensely Credit has been provided for aquaculture mainly by banks and NABARD has also played a very vital role in the credit schemes of marine, inland and brackish water aquaculture. This credit facility is mainly used for processing, packaging, preservation, transportation and marketing of India fish, fish products, prawn culture etc. With this credit money new ponds can be developed, old ponds can be expanded, quality feed can be manufactured and many such other things. Manual and mechanized boats can be improved upon. Their capacity can be increased and additional gears, nets and other equipments may be added. The initial credit given by the banks for the India fish fishery industry was Rs 4480 million in 1998-99 and this increased to Rs 5980 million in 2001-2. NABARD refinance also went up from Rs 297 million in 1998-99 to Rs 347 million in 2002-3. Apart from giving a financial boost, the central and state governments have laid down certain guidelines and policies also. In order to provide education to the fisheries, the Indian Council Of Educational Research has set up a research institute. Financially vulnerable farmers have been given help especially for aquaculture of India fish.. Areas where aquaculture is possible is identified by the government and guidelines are given to the farmers. Certain regulatory measures are taken in order to prevent over harvesting of India fish.. They also try to protect the interests of small fish producers. A program has been initiated by FAO and NABARD to provide micro finance and women in the coastal areas to become financially independent. This can go a long way in the alleviation of poverty because it will also supplement the family income. The corporate sector has done its bit by introducing advanced technology for increased production of India fish, exports and prawn culture. They invest in high powered fishing vessels and put up freezing plants. This goes a long way in the total enhancement of the fishery division. The corporate sector has spent around Rs 600 million, especially for shrimp farming and its exports. All these avenues which provide financial, as well as technical help, go a long to remove fishermen from the poverty line, as well as give a big boost to the India fishing industry. Description-Financial aid and technical guidance provided by the financial and educational institutions for the aquaculture of India fish. Future Prospects for Marine Products Export Industry   Marine products have created a sensation in the world market because of their high health attributes. With the high unit value, seafood has been acclaimed as one of the fastest moving commodity in the world market. The world market for seafood has doubled within the last decade reaching US $49. 32 billion mark Indias share is 2. 4%, dependence on shrimp as a product and is changing due to the increased attention given on other fishery resource like squid, cuttlefish, fin fish, etc. and penetrating into markets of Western Europe and South East Asia.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

261 Faulkner and Barn Burning Professor Ramos Blog

261 Faulkner and Barn Burning William Faulkner Quick Write This was a complex text. What is the most pressing question that you have about the reading Barn Burning? William Faulkner Barn Burning

Thursday, November 21, 2019

My Lifes Experience and Identity vs. Elaine Risley Essay

My Lifes Experience and Identity vs. Elaine Risley - Essay Example My case is no different from the person that I am today has greatly been determined by the experiences and the socialization processes that I went through as a child. Evidently, the childhood stage determines how one interacts with others, and even shape the kind of personality that an individual acquires. As seen in the novel, Elaine joins high school and it is at this point that her personality completely shifts from an introvert to a social person and an extrovert (Atwood 22). This transition can be related to the fact that in her childhood she did not have the right people an opportunity to converse with and even interact with. This is similar to my situation. When I was a child, I could barely communicate with others because my parent always questioned my doings, and I was, therefore, afraid that everything I did was wrong. Upon joining high school, my confidence was restored, and I began talking to people often. An individual’s experiences have major effects on the identity of individuals. In the novel, Elaine is seen to lead a very happy life before moving to Toronto despite her having friends (Atwood 22). In the course of her childhood, Elaine goes through terrible experiences such as being put in a hole in the name of game playing (Atwood 120). It is in this hole that she went through terror, fright, sadness, and betrayal. Her friends take advantage of her naivety and innocence to take advantage of her; though Elaine believed that her friends wanted to include her in the game. It would take time for Elaine to be embraced in the group since her fellow finds like Cordelia think that she is not normal (Atwood 134). Elaine stands the bullying from her friends and does not tell her parents or even the teacher. Her self-esteem is then damaged, a fact that determines her identity and personality.